The Eleventh Plan highlighted various health issues in the country, which inter-alia included high Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR), Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) and Total Fertility Rate (TFR) and called for initiatives for improving health care indicators. Various initiatives taken by Ministry of Health and Family Welfare in partnership with States/UTs have resulted in improvement of health care indicators in the country. MMR in India declined from 254 per one lakh live births for the period 2004-06 to 212 per one lakh live births during the period 2007-09. IMR registered a decline of 14 points from 58 per 1000 live births in 2005 to 44 per 1000 live births in 2011. TFR declined from 2.6 in 2008 to 2.5 in 2010.
Government has taken several steps during the Eleventh Plan which inter alia, included the following :
· Effective implementation of National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) to provide primary and secondary healthcare. The main focus areas of NRHM include improvement in heath infrastructure, providing adequate human resources to man health facilities and to provide quality health care service.
· Effective planning and implementation of Reproductive Child Health (RCH) related intervention which inter-alia include development of Community Health Centres (CHCs) as First Referral Units (FRUs), Upgradation of Primary Health Centres (PHCs) as 24×7 PHCs, implementation of JananiSurakshaYojana (JSY) and JananiShishuSurakshaKaryakaram (JSSK), Life Saving Anesthetics Skills (LSAS) and Emergency Obstetric Care (EmOC) training of doctors, improved ante-natal, intra-natal and post natal care, development of Special Newborn Care Units (SNCUs), Newborn Care Units (NBCUs) and Newborn Care Corners (NBCCs), Home based newborn care, distribution of contraceptives through Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs), improving access to spacing and terminal methods etc.
· Making available tertiaryhealth care services through strengthening of hospitals and establishment of AIIMS like institutions in the country.
· Up-gradation of existing Government medical colleges across the country.
· Effective Implementation of programmes for control of communicable and non-communicable diseases.
· Mainstreaming of Indian System of Medicine and Homeopathy.
· Increased public allocation for health programmes.
Moreover, the Twelfth Plan strategy is to strengthen initiatives taken in the Eleventh Plan to further expand the reach of health care with focus on vulnerable and marginalized sections of population. The Plan envisages substantial expansion and strengthening of the public health systems and provision of robust primary health care.
As per the 12th Five Year Plan document, total public funding by the Centre and States, plan and non-plan, on core health is envisaged to increase to 1.87 per cent of GDP by the end of the Twelfth Plan. When viewed in the perspective of the broader health sector, the total Government expenditure as a proportion of GDP is envisaged to increase to 3.04 per cent by the end of the Twelfth Plan. The allocation of 12th Five Year Plan for Ministry of Health and Family Welfare has been substantially increased to Rs. 300018 crore.