Section 185 of Companies Act, 2013 – Loan to directors, etc.

  • Updated Till : October 17, 2018

SECTION 185. LOAN TO DIRECTORS, ETC.

[Effective from 12th September, 2013]

 

[1][185. (1) No company shall, directly or indirectly, advance any loan, including any loan represented by a book debt to, or give any guarantee or provide any security in connection with any loan taken by,—

(a) any director of company, or of a company which is its holding company or any partner or relative of any such director; or

(b) any firm in which any such director or relative is a partner.

(2) A company may advance any loan including any loan represented by a book debt, or give any guarantee or provide any security in connection with any loan taken by any person in whom any of the director of the company is interested, subject to the condition that—

(a) a special resolution is passed by the company in general meeting:

Provided that the explanatory statement to the notice for the relevant general meeting shall disclose the full particulars of the loans given, or guarantee given or security provided and the purpose for which the loan or guarantee or security is proposed to be utilised by the recipient of the loan or guarantee or security and any other relevant fact; and

(b) the loans are utilised by the borrowing company for its principal business activities.

Explanation.—For the purposes of this sub-section, the expression “any person in whom any of the director of the company is interested” means—

(a) any private company of which any such director is a director or member;

(b) any body corporate at a general meeting of which not less than twenty-five per cent. of the total voting power may be exercised or controlled by any such director, or by two or more such directors, together; or

(c) any body corporate, the Board of directors, managing director or manager, whereof is accustomed to act in accordance with the directions or instructions of the Board, or of any director or directors, of the lending company.

(3) Nothing contained in sub-sections (1) and (2) shall apply to—

(a) the giving of any loan to a managing or whole-time director—

(i) as a part of the conditions of service extended by the company to all its employees; or

(ii) pursuant to any scheme approved by the members by a special resolution; or

(b) a company which in the ordinary course of its business provides loans or gives guarantees or securities for the due repayment of any loan and in respect of such loans an interest is charged at a rate not less than the rate of prevailing yield of one year, three years, five years or ten years Government security closest to the tenor of the loan; or

(c) any loan made by a holding company to its wholly owned subsidiary company or any guarantee given or security provided by a holding company in respect of any loan made to its wholly owned subsidiary company; or

(d) any guarantee given or security provided by a holding company in respect of loan made by any bank or financial institution to its subsidiary company:

Provided that the loans made under clauses (c) and (d) are utilised by the subsidiary company for its principal business activities.

(4) If any loan is advanced or a guarantee or security is given or provided or utilised in contravention of the provisions of this section,—

(i) the company shall be punishable with fine which shall not be less than five lakh rupees but which may extend to twenty-five lakh rupees;

(ii) every officer of the company who is in default shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months or with fine which shall not be less than five lakh rupees but which may extend to twenty-five lakh rupees; and

(iii) the director or the other person to whom any loan is advanced or guarantee or security is given or provided in connection with any loan taken by him or the other person, shall be punishable with imprisonment which may extend to six months or with fine which shall not be less than five lakh rupees but which may extend to twenty-five lakh rupees, or with both.]

EXEMPTIONS

Section 185 shall not apply to a Government company in case such company obtains approval of the Ministry or Department of the Central Government which is administratively in charge of the company, or, as the case may be, the State Government before making any loan or giving any guarantee or providing any security under the section, as amended vide Notification No. G.S.R. 463(E) dated 5th June, 2015.

Section 185 shall not apply to a private company —

 (a)   in whose share capital no other body corporate has invested any money;

 (b)   if the borrowings of such a company from banks or financial institutions or anybody corporate is less than twice its paid up share capital or fifty crore rupees, whichever is lower; and

(c)   such a company has no default in repayment of such borrowings subsisting at the time of making transactions under this section vide Notification No. 464(E) dated 5th June, 2015.

Section 185 shall not apply to a Nidhi company provided the loan is given to a director or his relative in their capacity as members and such transaction is disclosed in the annual accounts by a note; vide Notification No. G.S.R. 465(E) dated 5th June, 2015.

Applicable Rules

Companies (Meetings of Board and its Powers) Rules, 2014

[Effective from 1st April, 2014]

Rule 10. Loans to Director etc. under section 185.— [2][***]

Applicable Circulars

Clarification with regard to Section 185 of the Companies Act, 2013

General Circular No. 03/2014, dated 14-2-2014

This Ministry has received number of representations on the applicability of Section 185 of the Companies Act, 2013 with reference to loans made, guarantee given or security provided under section 372A of the Companies Act, 1956. The issue has been examined with reference to applicability of section 372A of the Companies Act, 1956 vis-a-vis section 185 of the Companies Act, 2013. Section 372A of the Companies Act, 1956, specifically exempts any loans made, any guarantee given or security provided or any investment made by a holding company to its wholly owned subsidiary. Whereas, section 185 of the Companies Act, 2013 prohibits guarantee given or any security provided by a holding company in respect of any loan taken by its subsidiary company except in the ordinary course of business.

2. In order to maintain harmony with regard to applicability of section 372A of the Companies Act, 1956 till the same is repealed and section 185 of the Companies Act, 2013 is notified, it is hereby clarified that any guarantee given or security provided by a holding company in respect of loans made by a bank or financial institution to its subsidiary company, exemption as provided in clause (d) of sub-section (8) of section 372A of the Companies Act, 1956 shall be applicable till section 186 of the Companies Act, 2013 is notified. This clarification will, however, be applicable to cases where loans so obtained are exclusively utilized by the subsidiary for its principal business activities.

 

Clarification with regard to section 185 and 186 of the Companies Act 2013 – loans and advances to employees – reg.

General Circular No. 04/2015, dated 10-3-2015

The Ministry has received a number of references seeking clarification on the applicability of provisions of section 186 of the Companies Act, 2013 relating to grant of loans and advances by Companies to their employees.

2. The issue has been examined and it is hereby clarified that loans and/or advances made by the companies to their employees, other than the managing or whole time directors (which is governed by section 185) are not governed by the requirements of section 186 of the Companies Act, 2013. This clarification will, however, be applicable if such loans/ advances to employees are in accordance with the conditions of service applicable to employees and are also in accordance with the remuneration policy, in cases where such policy is required to be formulated.


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[1] Subsituted vide Companies (Amendment) Act 2017 vide Notification No. S.O. 1833(E)  dated 7th May, 2018. Prior to substitution it read as under- “(1) Save as otherwise provided in this Act, no company shall, directly or indirectly, advance any loan, including any loan represented by a book debt, to any of its directors or to any other person in whom the director is interested or give any guarantee or provide any security in connection with any loan taken by him or such other person:Provided that nothing contained in this sub-section shall apply to—

(a)   the giving of any loan to a managing or whole-time director—

(i)   as a part of the conditions of service extended by the company to all its employees; or

(ii)   pursuant to any scheme approved by the members by a special resolution; or

(b)   a company which in the ordinary course of its business provides loans or gives guarantees or securities for the due repayment of any loan and in respect of such loans an interest is charged at a rate not less than the bank rate declared by the Reserve Bank of India.

(c)   any loan made by a holding company to its wholly owned subsidiary company or any guarantee given or security provided by a holding company in respect of any loan made to its wholly owned subsidiary company; or

(d)   any guarantee given or security provided by a holding company in respect of loan made by any bank or financial institution to its subsidiary company:

Provided that the loans made under clauses (c) and (d) are utilised by the subsidiary company for its principal business activities.

Explanation.—For the purposes of this section, the expression “to any other person in whom director is interested” means—

(a)   any director of the lending company, or of a company which is its holding company or any partner or relative of any such director;

(b)   any firm in which any such director or relative is a partner;

(c)   any private company of which any such director is a director or member;

EXEMPTIONS

In case of a Specified IFSC public company for clause (c) in the Explanation, following clause shall be substituted vide Notification No. G.S.R. 08(E). dated 4th January, 2017.

         (c)   any private company of which any such director is a director or member in which director of the lending company do not have direct or indirect shareholding through themselves or through their relatives and a special resolution is passed to this effect;]

In case of a Specified IFSC private company for clause (c) in the Explanation, following clause shall be substituted vide Notification No. G.S.R. 9(E). dated 4th January, 2017.

         (c)   any private company of which any such director is a director or member in which director of the lending company do not have direct or indirect shareholding through themselves or through their relatives and a special resolution is passed to this effect.

(e)   any body corporate, the Board of directors, managing director or manager, whereof is accustomed to act in accordance with the directions or instructions of the Board, or of any director or directors, of the lending company.

(d)   any body corporate at a general meeting of which not less than twenty-five per cent of the total voting power may be exercised or controlled by any such director, or by two or more such directors, together; or

(2) If any loan is advanced or a guarantee or security is given or provided in contravention of the provisions of sub-section (1), the company shall be punishable with fine which shall not be less than five lakh rupees but which may extend to twenty-five lakh rupees, and the director or the other person to whom any loan is advanced or guarantee or security is given or provided in connection with any loan taken by him or the other person, shall be punishable with imprisonment which may extend to six months or with fine which shall not be less than five lakh rupees but which may extend to twenty-five lakh rupees, or with both.

[2] Omitted by the Companies (Meetings of Board and its Powers) Second Amendment Rules, 2015 vide Notification No. G.S.R 971(E) dated 14th December, 2015. Prior to omission it read as under:

“Rule 10. Loans to Director etc. under section 185.—(1) Any loan made by a holding company to its wholly owned subsidiary company or any guarantee given or security provided by a holding company in respect of any loan made to its wholly owned subsidiary company is exempted from the requirements under this section; and

(2) Any guarantee given or security provided by a holding company in respect of loan made by any bank or financial institution to its subsidiary company is exempted from the requirements under this section:

Provided that such loans made under sub-rule (1) and (2) are utilised by the subsidiary company for its principal business activities”

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