Section 230 of Companies Act, 2013 – Power to compromise or make arrangements with creditors and members

  • Updated Till : November 15, 2018

SECTION 230. POWER TO COMPROMISE OR MAKE ARRANGEMENTS
WITH CREDITORS AND MEMBERS

[Effective from 15th December, 2016 except sub-section (11) and (12)]

EXEMPTION

[5][In Section 230, for Government Companies, wherever the word “Tribunal” occurs, it shall be read as “Central Government”

 The above exceptions/modifications/adaptations shall be applicable to a Government company which has not committed a default in filing its financial statements under section 137 of the said Act or annual return under section 92 of the said Act with the Registrar], vide Notification No. G.S.R. 582(E) dated 13th June, 2017

(1) Where a compromise or arrangement is proposed—

(a)   between a company and its creditors or any class of them; or

(b)   between a company and its members or any class of them,

the Tribunal may, on the application of the company or of any creditor or member of the company, or in the case of a company which is being wound up, of the liquidator [appointed under this Act [1] [or under the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016, as the case may be], order a meeting of the creditors or class of creditors, or of the members or class of members, as the case may be, to be called, held and conducted in such manner as the Tribunal directs.

Explanation.For the purposes of this sub-section, arrangement includes a reorganisation of the company’s share capital by the consolidation of shares of different classes or by the division of shares into shares of different classes, or by both of those methods.

(2) The company or any other person, by whom an application is made under sub-section (1), shall disclose to the Tribunal by affidavit—

(a)   all material facts relating to the company, such as the latest financial position of the company, the latest auditor’s report on the accounts of the company and the pendency of any investigation or proceedings against the company;

(b)   reduction of share capital of the company, if any, included in the compromise or arrangement;

(c)   any scheme of corporate debt restructuring consented to by not less than seventy-five per cent of the secured creditors in value, including—

(i)   a creditor’s responsibility statement in the prescribed form;

(ii)   safeguards for the protection of other secured and unsecured creditors;

(iii)   report by the auditor that the fund requirements of the company after the corporate debt restructuring as approved shall conform to the liquidity test based upon the estimates provided to them by the Board;

(iv)   where the company proposes to adopt the corporate debt restructuring guidelines specified by the Reserve Bank of India, a statement to that effect; and

(v)   a valuation report in respect of the shares and the property and all assets, tangible and intangible, movable and immovable, of the company by a registered valuer.

(3) Where a meeting is proposed to be called in pursuance of an order of the Tribunal under sub-section (1), a notice of such meeting shall be sent to all the creditors or class of creditors and to all the members or class of members and the debenture-holders of the company, individually at the address registered with the company which shall be accompanied by a statement disclosing the details of the compromise or arrangement, a copy of the valuation report, if any, and explaining their effect on creditors, key managerial personnel, promoters and non-promoter members, and the debenture-holders and the effect of the compromise or arrangement on any material interests of the directors of the company or the debenture trustees, and such other matters as may be prescribed:

Provided that such notice and other documents shall also be placed on the website of the company, if any, and in case of a listed company, these documents shall be sent to the Securities and Exchange Board and stock exchange where the securities of the companies are listed, for placing on their website and shall also be published in newspapers in such manner as may be prescribed:

Provided further that where the notice for the meeting is also issued by way of an advertisement, it shall indicate the time within which copies of the compromise or arrangement shall be made available to the concerned persons free of charge from the registered office of the company.

(4) A notice under sub-section (3) shall provide that the persons to whom the notice is sent may vote in the meeting either themselves or through proxies or by postal ballot to the adoption of the compromise or arrangement within one month from the date of receipt of such notice:

Provided that any objection to the compromise or arrangement shall be made only by persons holding not less than ten per cent of the shareholding or having outstanding debt amounting to not less than five per cent of the total outstanding debt as per the latest audited financial statement.

(5) A notice under sub-section (3) along with all the documents in such form as may be prescribed shall also be sent to the [4][Central Government], the income-tax authorities, the Reserve Bank of India, the Securities and Exchange Board, the Registrar, the respective stock exchanges, the Official Liquidator, the Competition Commission of India established under sub-section (1) of section 7 of the *Competition Act, 2002 (12 of 2003), if necessary, and such other sectoral regulators or authorities which are likely to be affected by the compromise or arrangement and shall require that representations, if any, to be made by them shall be made within a period of thirty days from the date of receipt of such notice, failing which, it shall be presumed that they have no representations to make on the proposals.

(6) Where, at a meeting held in pursuance of sub-section (1), majority of persons representing three-fourths in value of the creditors, or class of creditors or members or class of members, as the case may be, voting in person or by proxy or by postal ballot, agree to any compromise or arrangement and if such compromise or arrangement is sanctioned by the Tribunal by an order, the same shall be binding on the company, all the creditors, or class of creditors or members or class of members, as the case may be, or, in case of a company being wound up, on the liquidator [2] [or under the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016, as the case may be]and the contributories of the company.

(7) An order made by the Tribunal under sub-section (6) shall provide for all or any of the following matters, namely:—

(a)   where the compromise or arrangement provides for conversion of preference shares into equity shares, such preference shareholders shall be given an option to either obtain arrears of dividend in cash or accept equity shares equal to the value of the dividend payable;

(b)   the protection of any class of creditors;

(c)   if the compromise or arrangement results in the variation of the shareholders’ rights, it shall be given effect to under the provisions of section 48;

(d)   if the compromise or arrangement is agreed to by the creditors under sub-section (6), any proceedings pending before the Board for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction established under section 4 of the *Sick Industrial Companies (Special Provisions) Act, 1985 (1 of 1986) shall abate;

(e)   such other matters including exit offer to dissenting shareholders, if any, as are in the opinion of the Tribunal necessary to effectively implement the terms of the compromise or arrangement:

Provided that no compromise or arrangement shall be sanctioned by the Tribunal unless a certificate by the company’s auditor has been filed with the Tribunal to the effect that the accounting treatment, if any, proposed in the scheme of compromise or arrangement is in conformity with the accounting standards prescribed under section 133.

(8) The order of the Tribunal shall be filed with the Registrar by the company within a period of thirty days of the receipt of the order.

(9) The Tribunal may dispense with calling of a meeting of creditor or class of creditors where such creditors or class of creditors, having at least ninety per cent value, agree and confirm, by way of affidavit, to the scheme of compromise or arrangement.

(10) No compromise or arrangement in respect of any buy-back of securities under this section shall be sanctioned by the Tribunal unless such buy-back is in accordance with the provisions of section 68.

(11) Any compromise or arrangement may include takeover offer made in such manner as may be prescribed:

Provided that in case of listed companies, takeover offer shall be as per the regulations framed by the Securities and Exchange Board.

(12) An aggrieved party may make an application to the Tribunal in the event of any grievances with respect to the takeover offer of companies other than listed companies in such manner as may be prescribed and the Tribunal may, on application, pass such order as it may deem fit.

Explanation.—For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that the provisions of section 66 shall not apply to the reduction of share capital effected in pursuance of the order of the Tribunal under this section.

Applicable Rules

Companies (Compromises, Arrangements and Amalgamations) Rules, 2016

[Effective from 15th December, 2016]

[3] [Rule 2. Definitions.— (1) In these rules, unless the context otherwise requires.—

(a) “Act” means the Companies Act, 2013 (18 of 2013);

(b) “Annexure” means the annexure to these rules;

(c) “Form” means a form set forth in annexure “A” to these rules which shall be used for the matter to which it relates, and includes an electronic version thereof;

(d) “Liquidator” means the Liquidator appointed under the Act or under the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016 (31of 2016);

(2) All other words and expressions used in these rules but not defined herein, and defined in the Act or in the Companies (Specification of Definitions Details) Rules, 2014 or in the National Company Law Tribunal Rules, 2016, shall have the same meanings respectively assigned to them in the Act or in the said rules.

Rule 3. Application for order of a meeting.—(1) An application under sub-section (1) of section 230 of the Act may be submitted in Form no. NCLT-1 (appended in the National Company Law Tribunal Rules, 2016) along with:-

(i) a notice of admission in Form No. NCLT-2 (appended in the National Company Law Tribunal Rules, 2016);

(ii) an affidavit in Form No. NCLT-6 (appended in the National Company Law Tribunal Rules, 2016);

(iii) a copy of scheme of compromise or arrangement, which should include disclosures as per sub-section (2) of section 230 of the Act; and

(iv) fee as prescribed in the Schedule of Fees.

(2) Where more than one company is involved in a scheme in relation to which an application under sub-rule (1) is being filed, such application may, at the discretion of such companies, be filed as a joint-application.

(3) Where the company is not the applicant, a copy of the notice of admission and of the affidavit shall be served on the company, or, where the company is being wound up, on its liquidator, not less than fourteen days before the date fixed for the hearing of the notice of admission.

(4) The applicant shall also disclose to the Tribunal in the application under sub-rule (1), the basis on which each class of members or creditors has been identified for the purposes of approval of the scheme.

Rule 4. Disclosures in application made to the Tribunal for compromise or arrangement.—Creditors Responsibility Statement. – For the purposes of sub-clause (i) of clause (c) of sub-section (2) of section 230 of the Act, the creditor’s responsibility statement in Form No. CAA. 1 shall be included in the scheme of corporate debt restructuring.

Explanation:- For the purpose of this rule, it is clarified that a scheme of corporate debt restructuring as referred to in clause (c) of sub-section (2) of section 230 of the Act shall mean a scheme that restructures or varies the debt obligations of a company towards its creditors.

Rule 5. Directions at hearing of the application.— Upon hearing the application under sub-section (1) of section 230 of the Act, the Tribunal shall, unless it thinks fit for any reason to dismiss the application, give such directions as it may think necessary in respect of the following matters:-

(a) determining the class or classes of creditors or of members whose meeting or meetings have to be held for considering the proposed compromise or arrangement; or dispensing with the meeting or meetings for any class or classes of creditors in terms of sub-section (9) of section 230;

(b) fixing the time and place of the meeting or meetings;

(c) appointing a Chairperson and scrutinizer for the meeting or meetings to be held, as the case may be and fixing the terms of his appointment including remuneration;

(d) fixing the quorum and the procedure to be followed at the meeting or meetings, including voting in person or by proxy or by postal ballot or by voting through electronic means;

Explanation.— For the purposes of these rules, “voting through electronic means” shall take place, mutatis mutandis, in accordance with the procedure as specified in rule 20 of Companies (Management and

Administration) Rules, 2014.

(e) determining the values of the creditors or the members, or the creditors or members of any class, as the case may be, whose meetings have to be held;

(f) notice to be given of the meeting or meetings and the advertisement of such notice;

(g) notice to be given to sectoral regulators or authorities as required under sub-section (5) of section 230;

(h) the time within which the chairperson of the meeting is required to report the result of the meeting to the Tribunal; and

(i) such other matters as the Tribunal may deem necessary.

Rule 6.Notice of meeting.— (1) Where a meeting of any class or classes of creditors or members has been directed to be convened, the notice of the meeting pursuant to the order of the Tribunal to be given in the manner provided in sub-section (3) of section 230 of the Act shall be in Form No. CAA.2 and shall be sent individually to each of the creditors or members.

(2) The notice shall be sent by the Chairperson appointed for the meeting, or, if the Tribunal so directs, by the company (or its liquidator), or any other person as the Tribunal may direct, by registered post or speed post or by courier or by email or by hand delivery or any other mode as directed by the Tribunal to their last known address at least one month before the date fixed for the meeting.

Explanation: – It is hereby clarified that the service of notice of meeting shall be deemed to have been effected in case of delivery by post, at the expiration of forty eight hours after the letter containing the same is posted.

(3) The notice of the meeting to the creditors and members shall be accompanied by a copy of the scheme of compromise or arrangement and a statement disclosing the following details of the compromise or arrangement, if such details are not already included in the said scheme:-

(i) details of the order of the Tribunal directing the calling, convening and conducting of the meeting:-

(a) date of the Order;

(b) date, time and venue of the meeting.

(ii) details of the company including:

(a) Corporate Identification Number (CIN) or Global Location Number (GLN) of the company;

(b) Permanent Account Number (PAN);

(c) name of the company;

(d) date of incorporation;

(e) type of the company (whether public or private or one-person company);

(f) registered office address and e-mail address;

(g) summary of main object as per the memorandum of association; and main business carried on by the company;

(h) details of change of name, registered office and objects of the company during the last five years;

(i) name of the stock exchange (s) where securities of the company are listed, if applicable;

(j) details of the capital structure of the company including authorised, issued, subscribed and paid up share

capital; and

(k) names of the promoters and directors along with their addresses.

(iii) if the scheme of compromise or arrangement relates to more than one company, the fact and details of any relationship subsisting between such companies who are parties to such scheme of compromise or arrangement, including holding, subsidiary or of associate companies;

(iv) the date of the board meeting at which the scheme was approved by the board of directors including the name of the directors who voted in favour of the resolution, who voted against the resolution and who did not vote or participate on such resolution;

(v) explanatory statement disclosing details of the scheme of compromise or arrangement including:-

(a) parties involved in such compromise or arrangement;

(b) in case of amalgamation or merger, appointed date, effective date, share exchange ratio (if applicable) and other considerations, if any;

(c) summary of valuation report (if applicable) including basis of valuation and fairness opinion of the registered valuer, if any, and the declaration that the valuation report is available for inspection at the registered office of the company;

(d) details of capital or debt restructuring, if any;

(e) rationale for the compromise or arrangement;

(f) benefits of the compromise or arrangement as perceived by the Board of directors to the company, members, creditors and others (as applicable);

(g) amount due to unsecured creditors.

(vi) disclosure about the effect of the compromise or arrangement on:

(a) key managerial personnel;

(b) directors;

(c) promoters;

(d) non-promoter members;

(e) depositors;

(f) creditors;

(g) debenture holders;

(h) deposit trustee and debenture trustee;

(i) employees of the company:

(vii) Disclosure about effect of compromise or arrangement on material interests of directors, Key Managerial Personnel (KMP) and debenture trustee.

Explanation – For the purposes of these rules it is clarified that-

(a) the term ‘interest’ extends beyond an interest in the shares of the company, and is with reference to the proposed scheme of compromise or arrangement.

(b) the valuation report shall be made by a registered valuer, and till the registration of persons as valuers is prescribed under section 247 of the Act, the valuation report shall be made by an independent merchant banker who is registered with the Securities and Exchange Board or an independent chartered accountant in practice having a minimum experience of ten years.

(viii) investigation or proceedings, if any, pending against the company under the Act.

(ix) details of the availability of the following documents for obtaining extract from or for making or obtaining copies of or for inspection by the members and creditors, namely:

(a) latest audited financial statements of the company including consolidated financial statements;

(b) copy of the order of Tribunal in pursuance of which the meeting is to be convened or has been dispensed

with;

(c) copy of scheme of compromise or arrangement;

(d) contracts or agreements material to the compromise or arrangement;

(e) the certificate issued by Auditor of the company to the effect that the accounting treatment, if any, proposed in the scheme of compromise or arrangement is in conformity with the Accounting Standards prescribed under Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013; and

(f) such other information or documents as the Board or Management believes necessary and relevant for making decision for or against the scheme;

(x) details of approvals, sanctions or no-objection(s), if any, from regulatory or any other governmental authorities required, received or pending for the proposed scheme of compromise or arrangement.

(xi) a statement to the effect that the persons to whom the notice is sent may vote in the meeting either in person or by proxies, or where applicable, by voting through electronic means.

 Explanation– For the purposes of this rule, disclosure required to be made by a company shall be made in respect of all the companies, which are part of the compromise or arrangement.

 Rule 7. Advertisement of the notice of the meeting.—The notice of the meeting under sub-section (3) of Section 230 of the Act shall be advertised in Form No. CAA.2 in at least one English newspaper and in at least one vernacular newspaper having wide circulation in the State in which the registered office of the company is situated, or such newspapers as maybe directed by the Tribunal and shall also be placed, not less than thirty days before the date fixed for the meeting, on the website of the company (if any) and in case of listed companies also on the website of the SEBI and the recognized stock exchange where the securities of the company are listed:

Provided that where separate meetings of classes of creditors or members are to be held, a joint advertisement for such meetings may be given.

Rule 8. Notice to statutory authorities.— (1) For the purposes of sub-section (5) of section 230 of the Act, the notice shall be in Form No. CAA.3, and shall be accompanied with a copy of the scheme of compromise or arrangement, the explanatory statement and the disclosures mentioned under rule 6, and shall be sent to.-

(i) the Central Government, the Registrar of Companies, the Income-tax authorities, in all cases;

(ii) the Reserve Bank of India, the Securities and Exchange Board of India, the Competition Commission of India, and the stock exchanges, as may be applicable ;

(iii) other sectoral regulators or authorities, as required by Tribunal.

(2) The notice to the authorities mentioned in sub-rule (1) shall be sent forthwith, after the notice is sent to the members or creditors of the company, by registered post or by speed post or by courier or by hand delivery at the office of the authority.

(3) If the authorities referred to under sub-rule (1) desire to make any representation under sub-section (5) of section

230, the same shall be sent to the Tribunal within a period of thirty days from the date of receipt of such notice and copy of such representation shall simultaneously be sent to the concerned companies and in case no representation is received within the stated period of thirty days by the Tribunal, it shall be presumed that the authorities have no representation to make on the proposed scheme of compromise or arrangement.

Rule 9. Voting.—The person who receives the notice may within one month from the date of receipt of the notice vote in the meeting either in person or through proxy or through postal ballot or through electronic means to the adoption of the scheme of compromise and arrangement.

Explanation. For the purposes of voting by persons who receive the notice as shareholder or creditor under this rule–

(a) “shareholding” shall mean the shareholding of the members of the class who are entitled to vote on the proposal;          and

(b) “outstanding debt” shall mean all debt owed by the company to the respective class or classes of creditors that

remains outstanding as per the latest audited financial statement, or if such statement is more than six months old, as per provisional financial statement not preceding the date of application by more than six months.

Rule  10. Proxies.— (1) Voting by proxy shall be permitted, provided a proxy in the prescribed form duly signed by the person entitled to attend and vote at the meeting is filed with the company at its registered office not later than 48 hours before the meeting.

(2) Where a body corporate which is a member or creditor (including holder of debentures) of a company authorises any person to act as its representative at the meeting, of the members or creditors of the company, or of any class of them, as the case may be, a copy of the resolution of the Board of Directors or other governing body of such body corporate authorising such person to act as its representative at the meeting, and certified to be a true copy by a director, the manager, the secretary, or other authorised officer of such body corporate shall be lodged with the company at its registered office not later than 48 hours before the meeting.

(3) No person shall be appointed as a proxy who is a minor.

(4) The proxy of a member or creditor blind or incapable of writing may be accepted if such member or creditor has attached his signature or mark thereto in the presence of a witness who shall add to his signature his description and address : provided that all insertions in the proxy are in the handwriting of the witness and such witness shall have certified at the foot of the proxy that all such insertions have been made by him at the request and in the presence of the member or creditor before he attached his signature or mark.

(5) The proxy of a member or creditor who does not know English may be accepted if it is executed in the manner prescribed in the preceding sub-rule and the witness certifies that it was explained to the member or creditor in the language known to him, and gives the member’s or creditor’s name in English below the signature.

Rule  11. Copy of compromise or arrangement to be furnished by the company.— Every creditor or member entitled to attend the meeting shall be furnished by the company, free of charge, within one day on a requisition being made for the same, with a copy of the scheme of the proposed compromise or arrangement together with a copy of the statement required to be furnished under section 230 of Act.

 Rule 12. Affidavit of service.— (1) The Chairperson appointed for the meeting of the company or other person directed to issue the advertisement and the notices of the meeting shall file an affidavit before the Tribunal not less than seven days before the date fixed for the meeting or the date of the first of the meetings, as the case may be, stating that the directions regarding the issue of notices and the advertisement have been duly complied with.

(2) In case of default under sub-rule (1), the application along with copy of the last order issued shall be posted before the Tribunal for such orders as it may think fit to make.

Rule 13. Result of the meeting to be decided by voting.— (1) The voting at the meeting or meetings held in pursuance of the directions of the Tribunal under Rule 5 on all resolutions shall take place by poll or by voting through electronic means.

(2) The report of the result of the meeting under sub – rule (1) shall be in Form No. CAA. 4 and shall state accurately the number of creditors or class of creditors or the number of members or class of members, as the case may be, who were present and who voted at the meeting either in person or by proxy, and where applicable, who voted through electronic means, their individual values and the way they voted.

Rule 14. Report of the result of the meeting by Chairperson.— The Chairperson of the meeting (or where there are separate meetings, the Chairperson of each meeting) shall, within the time fixed by the Tribunal, or where no time has been fixed, within three days after the conclusion of the meeting, submit a report to the Tribunal on the result of the meeting in Form No. CAA.4.

Rule 15. Petition for confirming compromise or arrangement.— (1) Where the proposed compromise or arrangement is agreed to by the members or creditors or both as the case may be, with or without modification, the company (or its liquidator), shall, within seven days of the filing of the report by the Chairperson, present a petition to the Tribunal in Form No. CAA.5 for sanction of the scheme of compromise or arrangement.

(2) Where a compromise or arrangement is proposed for the purposes of or in connection with scheme for the reconstruction of any company or companies, or for the amalgamation of any two or more companies, the petition shall pray for appropriate orders and directions under section 230 read with section 232 of the Act.

(3) Where the company fails to present the petition for confirmation of the compromise or arrangement as aforesaid, it shall be open to any creditor or member as the case may be, with the leave of the Tribunal, to present the petition and the company shall be liable for the cost thereof.

Rule 16. Date and notice of hearing.— (1) The Tribunal shall fix a date for the hearing of the petition, and notice of the hearing shall be advertised in the same newspaper in which the notice of the meeting was advertised, or in such other newspaper as the Tribunal may direct, not less than ten days before the date fixed for the hearing.

(2) The notice of the hearing of the petition shall also be served by the Tribunal to the objectors or to their

representatives under sub-section (4) of section 230 of the Act and to the Central Government and other authorities who have made representation under rule 8 and have desired to be heard in their representation.

Rule 17. Order on petition.— (1) Where the Tribunal sanctions the compromise or arrangement, the order shall include such directions in regard to any matter or such modifications in the compromise or arrangement as the Tribunal may think fit to make for the proper working of the compromise or arrangement.

(2) The order shall direct that a certified copy of the same shall be filed with the Registrar of Companies within

thirty days from the date of the receipt of copy of the order, or such other time as may be fixed by the Tribunal.

(3) The order shall be in Form No. CAA. 6, with such variations as may be necessary.]

[1] Inserted by the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016 (31 of 2016), s. 255 & eleventh schedule.

[2] Inserted by the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016 (31 of 2016), s. 255 & eleventh schedule.

[3] Inserted by Companies (Compromises, Arrangements and Amalgamations) Rules, 2016 vide Notification No. G.S.R 1134(E) dated 14th December, 2016.

[4] Powers of Central Government delegated to Regional Director vide Notification No. No. S.O. 4090(E) dated 19th December, 2016.

[5] Inserted in Notification No, G.S.R 463(E) dated 5th June, 2015.

Corporate Law Referencer

Recent Articles

Recent Legal updates

Recent Gst Updates