SECTION 62. FURTHER ISSUE OF SHARE CAPITAL
[Effective from 1st April, 2014, except sub-sections (4) to (6) which is effective from 1st June, 2016]
Section 62 shall not apply to a Nidhi Company vide Notification No. G.S.R. 465 (E) dated 5th June, 2015.
(1) Where at any time, a company having a share capital proposes to increase its subscribed capital by the issue of further shares, such shares shall be offered—
(a) to persons who, at the date of the offer, are holders of equity shares of the company in proportion, as nearly as circumstances admit, to the paid-up share capital on those shares by sending a letter of offer subject to the following conditions, namely:—
(i) the offer shall be made by notice specifying the number of shares offered and limiting a time not being less than fifteen days and not exceeding thirty days from the date of the offer within which the offer, if not accepted, shall be deemed to have been declined;
Provided that notwithstanding anything contained in this sub clause and sub-section (2) of this section, in case ninety percent of the members of a private company have given their consent in writing or in electronic mode, the periods lesser than those specified in the said sub-clause or sub-section shall apply.
The above proviso is applicable only to a private company inserted vide Notification No. 464(E) dated 5th June, 2015
(ii) unless the articles of the company otherwise provide, the offer aforesaid shall be deemed to include a right exercisable by the person concerned to renounce the shares offered to him or any of them in favour of any other person; and the notice referred to in clause (i) shall contain a statement of this right;
(iii) after the expiry of the time specified in the notice aforesaid, or on receipt of earlier intimation from the person to whom such notice is given that he declines to accept the shares offered, the Board of Directors may dispose of them in such manner which is not dis-advantageous to the shareholders and the company;
(b) to employees under a scheme of employees’ stock option, subject to special resolution passed by company and subject to such conditions as may be prescribed; or
The words “special resolution” shall be substituted by “ordinary resolution” in respect of Private Companies vide Notification No. 464(E) dated 5th June, 2015.
(c) to any persons, if it is authorised by a special resolution, whether or not those persons include the persons referred to in clause (a) or clause (b), either for cash or for a consideration other than cash, if the price of such shares is determined by the valuation report of a registered valuer subject to such conditions as may be prescribed.
(2) The notice referred to in sub-clause (i) of clause (a) of sub-section (1) shall be despatched through registered post or speed post or through electronic mode to all the existing shareholders at least three days before the opening of the issue.
(3) Nothing in this section shall apply to the increase of the subscribed capital of a company caused by the exercise of an option as a term attached to the debentures issued or loan raised by the company to convert such debentures or loans into shares in the company:
Provided that the terms of issue of such debentures or loan containing such an option have been approved before the issue of such debentures or the raising of loan by a special resolution passed by the company in general meeting.
(4) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (3), where any debentures have been issued, or loan has been obtained from any Government by a company, and if that Government considers it necessary in the public interest so to do, it may, by order, direct that such debentures or loans or any part thereof shall be converted into shares in the company on such terms and conditions as appear to the Government to be reasonable in the circumstances of the case even if terms of the issue of such debentures or the raising of such loans do not include a term for providing for an option for such conversion:
Provided that where the terms and conditions of such conversion are not acceptable to the company, it may, within sixty days from the date of communication of such order, appeal to the Tribunal which shall after hearing the company and the Government pass such order as it deems fit.
(5) In determining the terms and conditions of conversion under sub-section (4), the Government shall have due regard to the financial position of the company, the terms of issue of debentures or loans, as the case may be, the rate of interest payable on such debentures or loans and such other matters as it may consider necessary.
(6) Where the Government has, by an order made under sub-section (4), directed that any debenture or loan or any part thereof shall be converted into shares in a company and where no appeal has been preferred to the Tribunal under sub-section (4) or where such appeal has been dismissed, the memorandum of such company shall, where such order has the effect of increasing the authorised share capital of the company, stand altered and the authorised share capital of such company shall stand increased by an amount equal to the amount of the value of shares which such debentures or loans or part thereof has been converted into.
Companies (Share Capital and Debentures) Rules, 2014
[Effective from 1st April, 2014]
Rule 12. Issue of employee stock options.—A company, other than a listed company, which is not required to comply with Securities and Exchange Board of India Employee Stock Option Scheme Guidelines shall not offer shares to its employees under a scheme of employees’ stock option (hereinafter referred to as “Employees Stock Option Scheme”), unless it complies with the following requirements, namely:—
(1) The issue of Employees Stock Option Scheme has been approved by the shareholders of the company by passing a special resolution.
Explanation.—For the purposes of clause (b) of sub-section (1) of section 62 and this rule “Employee” means—
(a) a permanent employee of the company who has been working in India or outside India; or
(b) a director of the company, whether a whole time director or not but excluding an independent director; or
(c) an employee as defined in clauses (a) or (b) of a subsidiary, in India or outside India, or of a holding company of the company [***] but does not include—
(i) an employee who is a promoter or a person belonging to the promoter group; or
(ii) a director who either himself or through his relative or through any body corporate, directly or indirectly, holds more than ten percent of the outstanding equity shares of the company.
[“Provided that in case of a startup company, as defined in notification number GSR 180(E)* dated 17th February, 2016 issued by the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion, Ministry of Commerce and Industry Government of India, Government of India, the conditions mentioned in sub-clause (i) and (ii) shall not apply upto five years from the date of its incorporation or registration.”]
(2) The company shall make the following disclosures in the explanatory statement annexed to the notice for passing of the resolution—
(a) the total number of stock options to be granted;
(b) identification of classes of employees entitled to participate in the Employees Stock Option Scheme;
(c) the appraisal process for determining the eligibility of employees to the Employees Stock Option Scheme;
(d) the requirements of vesting and period of vesting;
(e) the maximum period within which the options shall be vested;
(f) the exercise price or the formula for arriving at the same;
(g) the exercise period and process of exercise;
(h) the Lock-in period, if any;
(i) the maximum number of options to be granted per employee and in aggregate;
(j) the method which the company shall use to value its options;
(k) the conditions under which option vested in employees may lapse e.g. in case of termination of employment for misconduct;
(l) the specified time period within which the employee shall exercise the vested options in the event of a proposed termination of employment or resignation of employee; and
(m) a statement to the effect that the company shall comply with the applicable accounting standards .
(3) The companies granting option to its employees pursuant to Employees Stock Option Scheme will have the freedom to determine the exercise price in conformity with the applicable accounting policies, if any.
(4) The approval of shareholders by way of separate resolution shall be obtained by the company in case of—
(a) grant of option to employees of subsidiary or holding company; or
(b) grant of option to identified employees, during any one year, equal to or exceeding one percent of the issued capital (excluding outstanding warrants and conversions) of the company at the time of grant of option.
(5) (a) The company may by special resolution, vary the terms of Employees Stock Option Scheme not yet exercised by the employees provided such variation is not prejudicial to the interests of the option holders.
(b) The notice for passing special resolution for variation of terms of Employees Stock Option Scheme shall disclose full of the variation, the rationale therefor, and the details of the employees who are beneficiaries of such variation.
(6) (a) There shall be a minimum period of one year between the grant of options and vesting of option:
Provided that in a case where options are granted by a company under its Employees Stock Option Scheme in lieu of options held by the same person under an Employees Stock Option Scheme in another company, which has merged or amalgamated with the first mentioned company, the period during which the options granted by the merging or amalgamating company were held by him shall be adjusted against the minimum vesting period required under this clause;
(b) The company shall have the freedom to specify the lock-in period for the shares issued pursuant to exercise of option.
(c) The Employees shall not have right to receive any dividend or to vote or in any manner enjoy the benefits of a shareholder in respect of option granted to them, till shares are issued on exercise of option.
(7) The amount, if any, payable by the employees, at the time of grant of option—
(a) may be forfeited by the company if the option is not exercised by the employees within the exercise period; or
(b) the amount may be refunded to the employees if the options are not vested due to non-fulfillment of conditions relating to vesting of option as per the Employees Stock Option Scheme.
(8) (a) The option granted to employees shall not be transferable to any other person.
(b) The option granted to the employees shall not be pledged, hypothecated, mortgaged or otherwise encumbered or alienated in any other manner.
(c) Subject to clause (d), no person other than the employees to whom the option is granted shall be entitled to exercise the option.
(d) In the event of the death of employee while in employment, all the options granted to him till such date shall vest in the legal heirs or nominees of the deceased employee.
(e) In case the employee suffers a permanent incapacity while in employment, all the options granted to him as on the date of permanent in capacitation, shall vest in him on that day.
(f) In the event of resignation or termination of employment, all options not vested in the employee as on that day shall expire. However, the employee can exercise the options granted to him which are vested within the period specified in this behalf, subject to the terms and conditions under the scheme granting such options as approved by the Board.
(9) The Board of directors, shall, inter alia, disclose in the Directors’ Report for the year, the following details of the Employees Stock Option Scheme:
(a) options granted;
(b) options vested;
(c) options exercised;
(d) the total number of shares arising as a result of exercise of option;
(e) options lapsed;
(f) the exercise price;
(g) variation of terms of options;
(h) money realized by exercise of options;
(i) total number of options in force;
(j) employee wise details of options granted to:—
(i) key managerial personnel;
(ii) any other employee who receives a grant of options in any one year of option amounting to five percent or more of options granted during that year.
(iii) identified employees who were granted option, during any one year, equal to or exceeding one percent of the issued capital (excluding outstanding warrants and conversions) of the company at the time of grant;
(10) (a) The company shall maintain a Register of Employee Stock Options in Form No. SH.6 and shall forthwith enter therein the particulars of option granted under clause (b) of sub-section (1) of section 62.
(b) The Register of Employee Stock Options shall be maintained at the registered office of the company or such other place as the Board may decide.
(c) The entries in the register shall be authenticated by the company secretary of the company or by any other person authorized by the Board for the purpose.
(11) Where the equity shares of the company are listed on a recognized stock exchange, the Employees Stock Option Scheme shall be issued in accordance with the regulations made by the Securities and Exchange Board of India in this behalf.
Rule 13. Issue of shares on preferential basis.—(1) For the purposes of clause (c) of sub-section (1) of section 62, If authorized by a special resolution passed in a general meeting, shares may be issued by any company in any manner whatsoever including by way of a preferential offer, to any persons whether or not those persons include the persons referred to in clause (a) or clause (b) of sub-section (1) of section 62 and such issue on preferential basis should also comply with conditions laid down in section 42 of the Act:
[Provided that in case of any preferential offer made by a company to one or more existing members only, the provisions of sub-rule (1) and proviso to sub-rule (3) of rule 14 of Companies (Prospectus and Allotment of Securities) Rules, 2014 shall not apply.]
Explanation.—For the purposes of this rule, (i) the expression ‘Preferential Offer’ means an issue of shares or other securities, by a company to any select person or group of persons on a preferential basis and does not include shares or other securities offered through a public issue, rights issue, employee stock option scheme, employee stock purchase scheme or an issue of sweat equity shares or bonus shares or depository receipts issued in a country outside India or foreign securities; (ii) the expression, “shares or other securities” means equity shares, fully convertible debentures, partly convertible debentures or any other securities, which would be convertible into or exchanged with equity shares at a later date.
(2) Where the preferential offer of shares or other securities is made by a company whose share or other securities are listed on a recognized stock exchange, such preferential offer shall be made in accordance with the provisions of the Act and regulations made by the Securities and Exchange Board, and if they are not listed, the preferential offer shall be made in accordance with the provisions of the Act and rules made hereunder and subject to compliance with the following requirements, namely:—
(a) the issue is authorized by its articles of association;
(b) the issue has been authorized by a special resolution of the members;
(d) The company shall make the following disclosures in the explanatory statement to be annexed to the notice of the general meeting pursuant to section 102 of the Act:
(i) the objects of the issue;
(ii) the total number of shares or other securities to be issued;
(iii) the price or price band at/within which the allotment is proposed;
(iv) basis on which the price has been arrived at along with report of the registered valuer;
(v) relevant date with reference to which the price has been arrived at;
(vi) the class or classes of persons to whom the allotment is proposed to be made;
(vii) intention of promoters, directors or key managerial personnel to subscribe to the offer;
(viii) the proposed time within which the allotment shall be completed;
(ix) the names of the proposed allottees and the percentage of post preferential offer capital that may be held by them;
(x) the change in control, if any, in the company that would occur consequent to the preferential offer;
(xi) the number of persons to whom allotment on preferential basis have already been made during the year, in terms of number of securities as well as price;
(xii) the justification for the allotment proposed to be made for consideration other than cash together with valuation report of the registered valuer.
(xiii) The pre issue and post issue shareholding pattern of the company in the following format—
| Pre Issue
(e) the allotment of securities on a preferential basis made pursuant to the special resolution passed pursuant to sub-rule (2)(b) shall be completed within a period of twelve months from the date of passing of the special resolution.
(f) if the allotment of securities is not completed within twelve months from the date of passing of the special resolution, another special resolution shall be passed for the company to complete such allotment thereafter.
(g) the price of the shares or other securities to be issued on a preferential basis, either for cash or for consideration other than cash, shall be determined on the basis of valuation report of a registered valuer;
(h)[“where convertible securities are offered on a preferential basis with an option to apply for and get equity shares allotted, the price of the resultant shares pursuant to conversion shall be determined-
(i) either upfront at the time when the offer of convertible securities is made, on the basis of valuation report of the registered valuer given at the stage of such offer, or
(ii) at the time, which shall not be earlier than thirty days to the date when the holder of convertible security becomes entitled to apply for shares, on the basis of valuation report of the registered valuer given not earlier than sixty days of the date when the holder of convertible security becomes entitled to apply for shares:
Provided that the company shall take a decision on sub-clauses (i) or (ii) at the time of offer of convertible security itself and make such disclosure under sub-clause (v) of clause (d) of sub-rule (2) of this rule.”]
(i) where shares or other securities are to be allotted for consideration other than cash, the valuation of such consideration shall be done by a registered valuer who shall submit a valuation report to the company giving justification for the valuation;
(j) where the preferential offer of shares is made for a non-cash consideration, such non-cash consideration shall be treated in the following manner in the books of account of the company—
(i) where the non-cash consideration takes the form of a depreciable or amortizable asset, it shall be carried to the balance sheet of the company in accordance with the accounting standards; or
(ii) where clause (i) is not applicable, it shall be expensed as provided in the accounting standards.
[Explanation.- For the purposes of these rules, it is hereby clarified that, till a registered valuer is appointed in accordance with the provisions of the Act, the valuation report shall be made by an independent merchant banker who is registered with the Securities and Exchange Board of India or an independent Chartered Accountant in practice having a minimum experience of ten years.;]
[(3) The price of shares or other securities to be issued on preferential basis shall not be less than the price determined on the basis of valuation report of a registered valuer.]
“Start Up India”
Notification No.G.S.R. 180(E) of Ministry of Commerce and Industry (Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion) dated 17th Feb. 2016
The Government of India has announced ‘Startup India’ initiative for creating a conducive environment for startups in India. The various Ministries of the Government of India have initiated a number of activities for the purpose. To bring uniformity in the identified enterprises, an entity shall be considered as a ‘startup’-
- a) Up to five years from the date of its incorporation/registration,
- b) If its turnover for any of the financial years has not exceeded Rupees 25 crore, and
- c) It is working towards innovation, development, deployment or commercialization of new products, processes or services driven by technology or intellectual property;
Provided that any such entity formed by splitting up or reconstruction of a business already in existence shall not be considered a ‘startup’;
Provided further that in order to obtain tax benefits a startup so identified under the above definition shall be required to obtain a certificate of an eligible business from the lnter-Ministerial Board of Certification consisting of:
- a) Joint Secretary, Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion,
- b) Representative of Department of Science and Technology, and
- c) Representative of Department of Biotechnology.
- An entity shall cease to be a startup on completion of five years from the date of its incorporation/registration or if its turnover for any previous year exceeds Rupees 25 crore.
- Entity means a private limited company (as defined in the Companies Act, 2013), or a registered partnership firm (registered under section 59 of the Partnership Act, 1932) or a limited liability partnership (under the Limited Liability Partnership Act,2002).
- Turnover is as defined under the Companies Act, 2013.
- An entity is considered to be working towards innovation, development, deployment or commercialization of new products, processes or services driven by technology or intellectual property if it aims to develop and commercialize:
- A new product or service or process, or
- A significantly improved existing product or service or process, that will create or add value for customers or workflow.
Provided that the mere act of developing:
- products or services or processes which do not have potential for commercialization, or
- undifferentiated products or services or processes, or
- products or services or processes with no or limited incremental value for customers or workflow
would not be covered under this definition.
- The process of recognition as a ‘startup’ shall be through mobile app/portal of the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion. Startups will be required to submit a simple application with any of following documents:
- a) a recommendation (with regard to innovative nature of business), in a format specified by Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion, from any Incubator established in a postgraduate college in India; or
- b) a letter of support by any incubator which is funded (in relation to the project) from Government of India or any State Government as part of any specified scheme to promote innovation; or
- c) a recommendation (with regard to innovative nature of business), in a format specified by Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion, from any Incubator recognized by Government of India; or
- d) a letter of funding of not less than 20 per cent in equity by any Incubation Fund,/Angel Fund/Private Equity Fund/Accelerator/Angel Network duly registered with Securities and Exchange Board of India that endorses innovative nature of the business. Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion may include any such firnd in a negative list for such reasons as it may deem fit; or
- e) a letter of funding by Government of India or any State Government as part of any specified scheme to promote innovation; or
- f) a patent filed and published in the Journal by the Indian Patent Office in areas affiliated with the nature of business being promoted.
Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion may, until such mobile app/portal is launched make alternative arrangement of recognizing a ‘startup’. Once such application with relevant document is uploaded a real-time recognition number will be issued to the startup. If on subsequent verification, such recognition is found to be obtained without uploading the document or uploading any other document or a forged document, the concerned applicant shall be liable to a fine which shall be fifty per cent of paid up capital of the startup but shall not be less than Rupees 25,000.
 Omitted words “or of an associate company” by the Companies (Share Capital and Debentures) Amendment Rules, 2015 vide Notification No. G.S.R. 210 (E) dated 18th March, 2015.
 Inserted by Companies (Share Capital and Debentures) Amendment Rules, 2015 vide Notification No. GSR 210 (E) dated 18th March, 2015. Proviso to sub-rule 3 of Rule 14 of Companies (Prospectus and Allotment of Securities) Rules, 2014 is reproduced below for ready reference:
Provided that a copy of such record along with the private placement offer letter in Form PAS-4 shall be filed with the Registrar with fee as provided in Companies (Registration Offices and Fees) Rules, 2014 and where the company is listed, with the Securities and Exchange Board within a period of thirty days of circulation of the private placement offer letter.
Explanation.—For the purpose of this rule, it is hereby clarified that the date of private placement offer letter shall be deemed to be the date of circulation of private placement offer letter.
Substituted for “provided that” by Companies (Share Capital and Debentures) Amendment Rules, 2015 vide Notification No. GSR 210 (E) dated 18th March, 2015.
Inserted by the Companies (Share Capital and Debentures) Amendment Rules, 2014 vide Notification No. 413(E) dated 18th June, 2014.
Inserted by the Companies (Share Capital and Debentures) Amendment Rules, 2014 vide Notification No.413(E) dated 18th June, 2014.
 Inserted by the Companies (Share Capital and Debentures) Third Amendment Rules, 2016 vide Notification no. F. No. 01/04/2013 CL-V(part- II) dated 19th July 2016.
 Omitted by the Companies (Share Capital and Debentures) Third Amendment Rules, 2016 vide Notification no. F. No. 01/04/2013 CL-V(part- II) dated 19th July 2016. Prior to omission it read as under:
” the securities allotted by way of preferential offer shall be made fully paid up at the time of their allotment.”
 Substituted by the Companies (Share Capital and Debentures) Third Amendment Rules, 2016 vide Notification no. F. No. 01/04/2013 CL-V(part- II) dated 19th July 2016. Prior to substitution it read as under:
” where convertible securities are offered on a preferential basis with an option to apply for and get equity shares allotted, the price of the resultant shares shall be determined beforehand on the basis of a valuation report of a registered valuer and also complied with the provisions of section 62 of the Act;”