SECTION 90. Register of significant benefIcial owners in a company
[Effective from 1st April, 2014]
Section 90 shall not apply to a Government Company, vide Notification No. GSR 463(E) dated 5th June, 2015.
The above mentioned exception shall be applicable to a government company which has not committed a default in filing its financial statements under section 137 of the said Act or annual return under section 92 of the said Act with the Registrar, vide amendment notification F. No. 1/2/2014- CL-V dated 13th June 2017.
[(1) Every individual, who acting alone or together, or through one or more persons or trust, including a trust and persons resident outside India, holds beneficial interests, of not less than twenty-five per cent. or such other percentage as may be prescribed, in shares of a company or the right to exercise, or the actual exercising of significant influence or control as defined in clause (27) of section 2, over the company (herein referred to as “significant beneficial owner”), shall make a declaration to the company, specifying the nature of his interest and other particulars, in such manner and within such period of acquisition of the beneficial interest or rights and any change thereof, as may be prescribed:
Provided that the Central Government may prescribe a class or classes of persons who shall not be required to make declaration under this sub-section.
(2) Every company shall maintain a register of the interest declared by individuals under sub-section (1) and changes therein which shall include the name of individual, his date of birth, address, details of ownership in the company and such other details as may be prescribed.
(3) The register maintained under sub-section (2) shall be open to inspection by any member of the company on payment of such fees as may be prescribed.
(4) Every company shall file a return of significant beneficial owners of the company and changes therein with the Registrar containing names, addresses and other details as may be prescribed within such time, in such form and manner as may be prescribed.
(5) A company shall give notice, in the prescribed manner, to any person (whether or not a member of the company) whom the company knows or has reasonable cause to believe—
(a) to be a significant beneficial owner of the company;
(b) to be having knowledge of the identity of a significant beneficial owner or another person likely to have such knowledge; or
(c) to have been a significant beneficial owner of the company at any time during the three years immediately preceding the date on which the notice is issued, and who is not registered as a significant beneficial owner with the company as required under this section.
(6) The information required by the notice under sub-section (5) shall be given by the concerned person within a period not exceeding thirty days of the date of the notice.
(7) The company shall,—
(a) where that person fails to give the company the information required by the notice within the time specified therein; or
(b) where the information given is not satisfactory,
apply to the Tribunal within a period of fifteen days of the expiry of the period specified in the notice, for an order directing that the shares in question be subject to restrictions with regard to transfer of interest, suspension of all rights attached to the shares and such other matters as may be prescribed.
(8) On any application made under sub-section (7), the Tribunal may, after giving an opportunity of being heard to the parties concerned, make such order restricting the rights attached with the shares within a period of sixty days of receipt of application or such other period as may be prescribed.
(9) The company or the person aggrieved by the order of the Tribunal may make an application to the Tribunal for relaxation or lifting of the restrictions placed under sub-section (8).
(10) If any person fails to make a declaration as required under sub-section (1), he shall be punishable with fine which shall not be less than one lakh rupees but which may extend to ten lakh rupees and where the failure is a continuing one, with a further fine which may extend to one thousand rupees for every day after the first during which the failure continues.
(11) If a company, required to maintain register under sub-section (2) and file the information under sub-section (4), fails to do so or denies inspection as provided therein, the company and every officer of the company who is in default shall be punishable with fine which shall not be less than ten lakh rupees but which may extend to fifty lakh rupees and where the failure is a continuing one, with a further fine which may extend to one thousand rupees for every day after the first during which the failure continues.
(12) If any person wilfully furnishes any false or incorrect information or suppresses any material information of which he is aware in the declaration made under this section, he shall be liable to action under section 447.]
Companies (Significant Beneficial Owners) Rules,2018
(Effective from 13th June 2018)
Rule 2 Definitions –
(l) In these rules, unless the context otherwise requires,-
(a) “Act” means the Companies Act,2013 (18 of 2013);
(b) “form” means the form specified in Annexure to these rules;
(c) “registered owner” means a person whose name is entered in the register of members of a company as the holder of shares in that company but who does not hold beneficial interest in such shares;
(d) “section” means a section of the Act
(e) “significant beneficial owner” means an individual referred to in sub-section (1) of section 90 (holding ultimate beneficial interest of not less than ten per cent.) read with sub-section (10) of section 89, but whose name is not entered in the register of members of a company as the holder of such shares, and the term ‘significant beneficial ownership’ shall be construed accordingly;
Explanation l. – For the purpose of this clause, the significant beneficial ownership, in case of persons other than individuals or natural persons, shall be determined as under-
(i) where the member is a company, the significant beneficial owner is the natural person, who, whether acting alone or together with other natural persons, or through one or more other persons or trusts, holds not less than ten per cent. share capital of the company or who exercises significant influence or control in the company through other means;
(ii) where the member is a partnership firm, the significant beneficial owner is the natural person, who, whether acting alone or together with other natural persons, or through one or more other persons or trusts, holds not less than ten per cent. of capital or has entitlement of not less than ten per cent. of profits of the partnership;
(iii) where no natural person is identified under (i) or (ii), the significant beneficial owner is the relevant natural person who holds the position of senior managing official;
(iv) where the member is a trust (through trustee), the identification of beneficial owner(s) shall include identification of the author of the trust, the trustee, the beneficiaries with not less than ten per cent. interest in the trust and any other natural person exercising ultimate effective control over the trust through a chain of control or ownership;
Explanation II. It is hereby clarified that instruments in the form of global depository receipts, compulsorily convertible preference shares or compulsorily convertible debentures shall be treated as ‘shares’ for the purpose of this clause;
(2) Words and expressions used in these rules but not defined and defined in the Act or in Companies (Specification of Definitions Details) Rules, 2014 shall have the meanings respectively assigned to them in the Act and the said Rules.
Rule 3. Declaration of significant beneficial ownership in shares under section 90.- (1) Every significant beneficial owner shall file a declaration in Form No. BEN-1 to the company in which he holds the significant beneficial ownership on the date of commencement of these rules within ninety days from such commencement and within thirty days in case of any change in his significant beneficial ownership.
(2) Every individual, who, after the commencement of these rules, acquires significant beneficial ownership in a company. shall file a declaration in Form No. BEN-1 to the Company, within thirty days of acquiring such significant beneficial ownership or in case of any change in such ownership.
Rule 4. Return of significant beneficial owners in shares.- Where any declaration under rule 3 is received by the company, it shall file a return in Form No. BEN-2 with the Registrar in respect of such declaration, within a period of thirty days from the date of receipt of declaration by it, along with the fees as prescribed in companies (Registration offices and fees) Rules, 2014.
Rule 5. Register of significant beneficial owners.- (1) The company shall maintain a register of significant beneficial owners in Form No. BEN-3.
(2) The register shall be open for inspection during business hours, at such reasonable time of not less than two hours, on every working day as the board may decide, by any member of the company on payment of such fee as may be specified by the company but not exceeding fifty rupees for each inspection.
Rule 6. Notice seeking information about significant beneficial owners.- A company shall give notice seeking information in accordance with under sub-section (5) of section 90, in Form No. BEN-4.
Rule 7. Application to the Tribunal.- The company may apply to the Tribunal in accordance with sub-section (7) of section 90, for order directing that the shares in question be subject to restrictions, including –
(a) restrictions on the transfer of interest attached to the shares in question;
(b) suspension of the right to receive dividend in relation to the shares in question;
(c) suspension of voting rights in relation to the shares in question;
(d) any other restriction on all or any of the rights attached with the shares in question.
Rule 8. Non-Applicability.- These rules are not made applicable to the holding of shares of companies/body corporates, in case of pooled investment vehicles/investment funds such as Mutual Funds, Alterative Investment Funds (AIFs), Real Estate Investment Trusts(REITs) and Infrastructure Investment Trusts (lnvlTs) regulated under SEBI Act.
 Substituted vide Companies Amendment Act, 2017 vide notification no F. No. 1/1/2018-CL.I dated 13th June 2018. Prior to substitution it read as under-
“Where it appears to the Central Government that there are reasons so to do, it may appoint one or more competent persons to investigate and report as to beneficial ownership with regard to any share or class of shares and the provisions of section 216 shall, as far as may be, apply to such investigation as if it were an investigation ordered under that section.”