Section 197 of Companies Act, 2013 – Overall maximum managerial remuneration and managerial remuneration in case of absence or inadequacy of profits

  • Updated Till : July 18, 2017

Section 197. Overall Maximum Managerial Remuneration and Managerial Remuneration in Case of Absence or Inadequacy of Profits 

[Effective from 1st April, 2014]

EXEMPTIONS

Section 197 shall not apply to a Government Company, vide Notification No. GSR 463(E) dated 5th June, 2015.

Section 197 shall not apply to Specified public Company, vide Notification No. 08 dated 04th January, 2017.

(1) The total managerial remuneration payable by a public company, to its directors, including managing director and whole-time director, and its manager

in respect of any financial year shall not exceed eleven per cent of the net profits of that company for that financial year computed in the manner laid down in section 198 except that the remuneration of the directors shall not be deducted from the gross profits:

Provided that the company in general meeting may, with the approval of the Central Government, authorise the payment of remuneration exceeding eleven per cent of the net profits of the company, subject to the provisions of Schedule V:

Provided further that, except with the approval of the company in general meeting,—

(i) the remuneration payable to any one managing director; or whole-time director or manager shall not exceed five per cent of the net profits of the company and if there is more than one such director remuneration shall not exceed ten per cent of the net profits to all such directors and manager taken together;

(ii) the remuneration payable to directors who are neither managing directors nor whole-time directors shall not exceed,—

(A) one per cent of the net profits of the company, if there is a managing or whole-time director or manager;

(B) three per cent of the net profits in any other case.

EXEMPTIONS

In case of a Nidhi Company, the second proviso to Section 197(1) shall apply with the modification that the remuneration of a director who is neither managing director nor wholetime director or manager for performing special services to the Nidhis specified in the articles of association may be paid by way of monthly payment subject to the approval of the company in general meeting and also to the provisions of section 197:

Provided that no approval of the company in general meeting shall be required where,—

(a) a Nidhi does not have a managing director or a whole-time director or a manager;

(b) the remuneration payable during a financial year to all the directors of the Nidhi does not exceed ten per cent, of the net profits of such Nidhi or fifteen lakh rupees, whichever is less; and 

(c) a remuneration payable under clause (b) is approved by a special resolution passed in this behalf by the Nidhi, vide Notification No. GSR 465(E) dated 5th June, 2015.

(2) The percentages aforesaid shall be exclusive of any fees payable to directors under sub-section (5).

(3) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-sections (1) and (2), but subject to the provisions of Schedule V, if, in any financial year, a company has no profits or its profits are inadequate, the company shall not pay to its directors, including any managing or whole-time director or manager, by way of remuneration any sum exclusive of any fees payable to directors under sub-section (5) hereunder except in accordance with the provisions of Schedule V and if it is not able to comply with such provisions, with the previous approval of the Central Government.

(4) The remuneration payable to the directors of a company, including any managing or whole-time director or manager, shall be determined, in accordance with and subject to the provisions of this section, either by the articles of the company, or by a resolution or, if the articles so require, by a special resolution, passed by the company in general meeting and the remuneration payable to a director determined aforesaid shall be inclusive of the remuneration payable to him for the services rendered by him in any other capacity:

Provided that any remuneration for services rendered by any such director in other capacity shall not be so included if—

(a) the services rendered are of a professional nature; and

(b) in the opinion of the Nomination and Remuneration Committee, if the company is covered under sub-section (1) of section 178, or the Board of Directors in other cases, the director possesses the requisite qualification for the practice of the profession.

(5) A director may receive remuneration by way of fee for attending meetings of the Board or Committee thereof or for any other purpose whatsoever as may be decided by the Board:

Provided that the amount of such fees shall not exceed the amount as may be prescribed:

Provided further that different fees for different classes of companies and fees in respect of independent director may be such as may be prescribed.

(6) A director or manager may be paid remuneration either by way of a monthly payment or at a specified percentage of the net profits of the company or partly by one way and partly by the other.

(7) Notwithstanding anything contained in any other provision of this Act but subject to the provisions of this section, an independent director shall not be entitled to any stock option and may receive remuneration by way of fees provided under sub-section (5), reimbursement of expenses for participation in the Board and other meetings and profit related commission as may be approved by the members.

(8) The net profits for the purposes of this section shall be computed in the manner referred to in section 198.

(9) If any director draws or receives, directly or indirectly, by way of remuneration any such sums in excess of the limit prescribed by this section or without the prior sanction of the Central Government, where it is required, he shall refund such sums to the company and until such sum is refunded, hold it in trust for the company.

(10) The company shall not waive the recovery of any sum refundable to it under sub-section (9) unless permitted by the Central Government.

(11) In cases where Schedule V is applicable on grounds of no profits or inadequate profits, any provision relating to the remuneration of any director which purports to increase or has the effect of increasing the amount thereof, whether the provision be contained in the company’s memorandum or articles, or in an agreement entered into by it, or in any resolution passed by the company in general meeting or its Board, shall not have any effect unless such increase is in accordance with the conditions specified in that Schedule and if such conditions are not being complied, the approval of the Central Government had been obtained.

(12) Every listed company shall disclose in the Board’s report, the ratio of the remuneration of each director to the median employee’s remuneration and such other details as may be prescribed.

(13) Where any insurance is taken by a company on behalf of its managing director, whole-time director, manager, Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer or Company Secretary for indemnifying any of them against any liability in respect of any negligence, default, misfeasance, breach of duty or breach of trust for which they may be guilty in relation to the company, the premium paid on such insurance shall not be treated as part of the remuneration payable to any such personnel:

Provided that if such person is proved to be guilty, the premium paid on such insurance shall be treated as part of the remuneration.

(14) Subject to the provisions of this section, any director who is in receipt of any commission from the company and who is a managing or whole-time director of the company shall not be disqualified from receiving any remuneration or commission from any holding company or subsidiary company of such company subject to its disclosure by the company in the Board’s report.

(15) If any person contravenes the provisions of this section, he shall be punishable with fine which shall not be less than one lakh rupees but which may extend to five lakh rupees.

Applicable Rules

Companies (Appointment and Remuneration of Managerial Personnel) Rules, 2014

[Effective from 1st April, 2014]

Rule 4. Sitting fees.—A company may pay a sitting fee to a director for attending meetings of the Board or committees thereof, such sum as may be decided by the Board of directors thereof which shall not exceed one lakh rupees per meeting of the Board or committee thereof:

Provided that for Independent Directors and Women Directors, the sitting fee shall not be less than the sitting fee payable to other directors.

Rule 5. Disclosure in Board’s report.—(1) Every listed company shall disclose in the Board’s report—

(i) the ratio of the remuneration of each director to the median remuneration of the employees of the company for the financial year;

(ii) the percentage increase in remuneration of each director, Chief Financial Officer, Chief Executive Officer, Company Secretary or Manager, if any, in the financial year;

(iii) the percentage increase in the median remuneration of employees in the financial year;

(iv) the number of permanent employees on the rolls of company;

[***][1]

(viii) average percentile increase already made in the salaries of employees other than the managerial personnel in the last financial year and its comparison with the percentile increase in the managerial remuneration and justification thereof and point out if there are any exceptional circumstances for increase in the managerial remuneration;

[***][1] and

(xii) affirmation that the remuneration is as per the remuneration policy of the company.

Explanation.—For the purposes of this rule.—

(i) the expression “median” means the numerical value separating the higher half of a population from the lower half and the median of a finite list of numbers may be found by  arranging all the observations from lowest value to highest value and picking the middle one;

(ii) if there is an even number of observations, the median shall be the average of the two middle values.

(2) The board’s report shall include a statement showing [the names of the top ten employees in terms of remuneration drawn and the name of every employee, who-][2]

(i) if employed throughout the financial year, was in receipt of remuneration for that year which, in the aggregate, was not less than [one crore and two lakh rupees][3];

(ii) if employed for a part of the financial year, was in receipt of remuneration for any part of that year, at a rate which, in the aggregate, was not less than [eight lakh and fifty thousand rupees per month][4];

(iii) if employed throughout the financial year or part thereof, was in receipt of remuneration in that year which, in the aggregate, or as the case may be, at a rate which, in the aggregate, is in excess of that drawn by the managing director or whole-time director or manager and holds by himself or along with his spouse and dependent children, not less than two percent of the equity shares of the company.

(3) The statement referred to in sub-rule (2) shall also indicate—

(i) designation of the employee;

(ii) remuneration received;

(iii) nature of employment, whether contractual or otherwise;

(iv) qualifications and experience of the employee;

(v) date of commencement of employment;

(vi) the age of such employee;

(vii) the last employment held by such employee before joining the company;

(viii) the percentage of equity shares held by the employee in the company within the meaning of clause (iii) of sub-rule (2) above; and

(ix) whether any such employee is a relative of any director or manager of the company and if so, name of such director or manager:

Provided that the particulars of employees posted and working in a country outside India, not being directors or their relatives, drawing more than sixty lakh rupees per financial year or five lakh rupees per month, as the case may be, as may be decided by the Board, shall not be circulated to the members in the Board’s report, but such particulars shall be filed with the Registrar of Companies while filing the financial statement and Board Reports:

Provided further that such particulars shall be made available to any shareholder on a specific request made by him in writing before the date of such Annual General Meeting wherein financial statements for the relevant financial year are proposed to be adopted by shareholders and such particulars shall be made available by the company within three days from the date of receipt of such request from shareholders:

Provided also that in case of request received even after the date of completion of Annual General Meeting, such particulars shall be made available to the shareholders within seven days from the date of receipt of such request.

Rule 7. Fees.—(1) Every application made to the Central Government under the provisions of Chapter XIII shall be made in Form No. MR.2 and shall be accompanied by fee as may be specified for the purpose.

(2) The companies other than listed companies and subsidiary of a listed company may without Central Government approval pay remuneration to its managerial personnel, in the event of no profit or inadequate profit beyond ceiling specified in Section II, Part II of Schedule V, subject to complying with the following conditions namely:—

(i) payment of remuneration is approved by a resolution passed by the Board and, in the case of a company covered under sub-section (1) of section 178 also by the Nomination and Remuneration Committee, if any, and while doing so record in writing the clear reason and justification for payment of remuneration beyond the said limit;

(ii) the company has not made any default in repayment of any of its debts (including public deposits) or debentures or interest payable thereon preference shares and dividend on preference shares for a continuous period of thirty days in the preceding financial year before the date of payment to such managerial personnel;

(iii) the approval of shareholders by way of a special resolution at a general meeting of the company for payment of remuneration for a period not exceeding three years;

(iv) a statement along-with a notice calling the general meeting referred to clause (iii) of sub-rule (2) above, shall contain the information as per sub clause (iv) of second proviso to clause (B) of section II of part-II of Schedule V of the Act including reasons and justification for payment of remuneration beyond the said limit;

(v) the company has filed Balance Sheet and Annual Return which are due to be filed with the Registrar of Companies.

(3) Every such application seeking approval shall be made to the Central Government within a period of ninety days from the date of such appointment. 

Applicable Circulars

Remuneration to managerial person under Schedule XIII of the Companies Act, 1956 –

Clarification with regard to payment for period.

General Circular No. 07/2015 dated 10th April, 2015

Stakeholders have drawn attention to the provisions of Schedule XIII (sixth proviso to Para (C) of Section II of Part II) of the Companies Act, 1956 (Earlier Act) and as clarified vide Circular number 14/11/2012-CL-VII dated 16th August, 2012, which allowed listed companies and their subsidiaries to pay remuneration, without approval of Central Government, in excess of limits specified in para II Para (C) of such Schedule if the managerial person met the conditions specified therein. Stakeholders have expressed that since similar provisions are not available in the Schedule V of the Companies Act, 2013, there is a need for a clarification that a managerial person appointed in accordance with such provision of Schedule XIII of Earlier Act may receive relevant remuneration for the period as approved by the company in accordance with such provisions of Earlier Act.

2. The matter has been examined in the light of earlier clarifications on transitional matters issued by the Ministry. It is clarified that a managerial person referred to in para 1 above may continue to receive remuneration for his remaining term in accordance with terms and conditions approved by company as per relevant provisions of Schedule XIII of earlier Act even if the part of his/her tenure falls after 1st April, 2014.

[1] Omitted by the Companies (Appointment and Remuneration of Managerial Personnel) Rules, 2016 vide Notification No. 1/5/2013 dated 30 June, 2016. Prior to omission it read as under:

[(v) the explanation on the relationship between average increase in remuneration and company performance;

(vi) comparison of the remuneration of the Key Managerial Personnel against the performance of the company;

(vii) variations in the market capitalisation of the company, price earnings ratio as at the closing date of the current financial year and previous financial year and percentage  increase over decrease in the market quotations of the shares of the company in comparison to the rate at which the company came out with the last public offer in case of listed companies, and in case of unlisted companies, the variations in the net worth of the company as at the close of the current financial year and previous financial year;

(ix) comparison of the each remuneration of the Key Managerial Personnel against the performance of the company;

(x) the key parameters for any variable component of remuneration availed by the directors;

(xi) the ratio of the remuneration of the highest paid director to that of the employees who are not directors but receive remuneration in excess of the highest paid director during the year;]

[2] Substituted for the words “the name of every employee of the company, who-” by the Companies (Appointment and Remuneration of Managerial Personnel) Rules, 2016 vide Notification No. 1/5/2013 dated 30 June, 2016

[3] Substituted for the words “sixty lakh rupees” by the Companies (Appointment and Remuneration of Managerial Personnel) Rules, 2016 vide Notification No. 1/5/2013 dated 30 June, 2016

[4] Substituted for the words “five lakh rupees per month” by the Companies (Appointment and Remuneration of Managerial Personnel) Rules, 2016 vide Notification No. 1/5/2013 dated 30 June, 2016

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