Section 180 of Companies Act, 2013 – Restrictions on powers of Board

  • Updated Till : September 26, 2023


[Effective from 12th September, 2013]


Section 180 shall not apply to a private company, vide Notification No. 464(E) dated 5th June, 2015.

The above mentioned exception shall be applicable to a private company which has not committed a default in filing its financial statements under section 137 of the said Act or annual return under section 92 of the said Act with the Registrar, vide amendment notification F. No. 1/1/2014- CL-V dated 13th June 2017. 

Section 180 shall apply in case of a Specified IFSC public company, unless the articles of the company provides otherwise, vide Notification No. 08(E) dated 04th January, 2017.

(1) The Board of Directors of a company shall exercise the following powers only with the consent of the company by a special resolution, namely:—

(a) to sell, lease or otherwise dispose of the whole or substantially the whole of the undertaking of the company or where the company owns more than one undertaking, of the whole or substantially the whole of any of such undertakings.

Explanation.—For the purposes of this clause,—

(i) “undertaking” shall mean an undertaking in which the investment of the company exceeds twenty per cent of its net worth as per the audited balance sheet of the preceding financial year or an undertaking which generates twenty per cent of the total income of the company during the previous financial year;

(ii) the expression “substantially the whole of the undertaking” in any financial year shall mean twenty per cent or more of the value of the undertaking as per the audited balance sheet of the preceding financial year;

(b) to invest otherwise in trust securities the amount of compensation received by it as a result of any merger or amalgamation;

(c) to borrow money, where the money to be borrowed, together with the money already borrowed by the company will exceed aggregate of its [paid-up share capital, free reserves and securities premium] [1], apart from temporary loans obtained from the company’s bankers in the ordinary course of business:

Provided that the acceptance by a banking company, in the ordinary course of its business, of deposits of money from the public, repayable on demand or otherwise, and withdrawable by cheque, draft, order or otherwise, shall not be deemed to be a borrowing of monies by the banking company within the meaning of this clause.

Explanation.—For the purposes of this clause, the expression “temporary loans” means loans repayable on demand or within six months from the date of the loan such as short-term, cash credit arrangements, the discounting of bills and the issue of other short-term loans of a seasonal character, but does not include loans raised for the purpose of financial expenditure of a capital nature;

(d) to remit, or give time for the repayment of, any debt due from a director.

(2) Every special resolution passed by the company in general meeting in relation to the exercise of the powers referred to in clause (c) of sub-section (1) shall specify the total amount up to which monies may be borrowed by the Board of Directors.

(3) Nothing contained in clause (a) of sub-section (1) shall affect—

(a) the title of a buyer or other person who buys or takes on lease any property, investment or undertaking as is referred to in that clause, in good faith; or

(b) the sale or lease of any property of the company where the ordinary business of the company consists of, or comprises, such selling or leasing.

(4) Any special resolution passed by the company consenting to the transaction as is referred to in clause (a) of sub-section (1) may stipulate such conditions as may be specified in such resolution, including conditions regarding the use, disposal or investment of the sale proceeds which may result from the transactions:

Provided that this sub-section shall not be deemed to authorise the company to effect any reduction in its capital except in accordance with the provisions contained in this Act.

(5) No debt incurred by the company in excess of the limit imposed by clause (c) of sub-section (1) shall be valid or effectual, unless the lender proves that he advanced the loan in good faith and without knowledge that the limit imposed by that clause had been exceeded.

Applicable Circulars

Clarification on the notification dated 12-9-2013 regarding implementation of provisions of Companies Act, 2013

General Circular No. 15/2013, dated 13-9-2013

The Companies Act, 2013 received the assent of the President on 29th August, 2013 and was notified in the Gazette of India on 30th August, 2013. Towards the proper implementation of the Companies Act, 2013, first tranche of Draft Rules on 16 Chapters have been placed on the website of the Ministry on 9.9.2013 for inviting comments and objections/suggestions from the general public/stakeholders. Of the 16 Chapters, only 13 Chapters require specifying of Forms referred to in those Chapters. The draft Forms shall be placed on the website shortly.

2. Ministry of Corporate Affairs has also notified 98 sections for implementation of the provisions of the Companies Act, 2013 (the “said Act”) on 12.9.2013. Certain difficulties have been expressed by the stakeholders in the implementation of following provisions of the said Act. With a view to facilitate proper administration of the said Act, it is clarified that—

* * *

(iv) Section 180: In respect of requirements of special resolution under section 180 of the “said Act” as against ordinary resolution required by the Companies Act, 1956, if notice for any such general meeting was issued prior to 12.9.2013, then such resolution may be passed in accordance with the requirement of the Companies Act, 1956.

* * *

Clarification with regard to section 180 of the Companies Act, 2013

General Circular No. 04/2014, dated 25-3-2014

This Ministry has received many representations regarding various difficulties arising out of implementation of section 180 of the Companies Act, 2013 with reference to borrowings and/ or creation of security, based on the basis of ordinary resolution. The matter has been examined in the Ministry and it is hereby clarified that the resolution passed under section 293 of the Companies Act, 1956 prior to 12.09.2013 with reference to borrowings (subject to the limits prescribed) and/or creation of security on assets of the company will be regarded as sufficient compliance of the requirements of section 180 of the Companies Act, 2013 for a period of one year from the date of notification of section 180 of the Act.


[1] Substituted for the words “paid-up share capital and free reserves” by the Companies (Amendment) Act 2017 vide Notification No. File No. 1/1/2018-CL.I dated 9th February, 2018.


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